Cosmic rays are a similar topic to which led the discovery of the Higgs boson which means its a subject of particle physics but rather in cosmic and galactic calculations. This topic shows how particle physics is part of the physical nature we are born into. Despite radiation impacts on the magnetic field, the atmosphere also plays a role in protecting us from radiation capable of dysfunctioning our DNA helix leading to cancer or death.
Cosmic rays have sources from events like a supernova (where a star or dwarf explodes because there isn’t enough energy to continue on nuclear fusion leaving it to collapse or explode in all directions x,y,z). They can originate from a neutron star solar flare or a black hole. And, atomic nuclei within the cosmic rays -or particles in other terms- tend to speed up near the speed of light which verifies Einstein’s E=mc2, yet a photon not carrying mass and not interfering with bosons can pass through galactic objects without a charge. Those with charge stem, chain and split into a shower of radiation, which is the same phenomenon with auroras, but cosmic rays increase density or composition through earth depending on latitude west to east.
The physics behind the phenomenon
Einstein’s theory of the photoelectric effect
The gamma-ray is the most abundant and is able to pass through walls of concrete; its frequency is greater than beta particles or even positrons near the speed of light. But usually, the particles emitted from a supernova are beta decay, which decays from a neutron to a proton, which means more protons will be shooting towards galactic space in higher composition than a positron(positive electron).
Einstein’s discovery of photons is a frequency that acts as particle and wave and can or can’t carry mass. Using unit J/eV, you can calculate energy emitted by this high-energy beam of particles. These gamma-rays also leave the daughter particle or nuclei in an excited state, which explains its high frequencies of energy and resistance.
This explains how photons behave:
From old to recent studies cosmic rays are the reason why we understand and detect dark matter. Since the subatomic particles of light beams from annihilation/decay, this indicates dark matter’s existence and abundance in the vast universe. In the end, these high-frequency waves are similar to what CERN is doing. The only unnatural thing they do at the lab is instead of leaving a chamber to interact at speeds near the speed of light, they collect data from collisions of those particles rather than decay. In our atmosphere, though, the interaction is caused by a change in charges that gets caught up in the magnetic field of the earth-with a strength of 0.56-which strains the particles into a radioactive shower, therefore, interacting with objects on earth. Cosmic rays are crucial for the development of earth and its elements and our understanding of modern day physics. Yet, we need further studies to understand dark matter fundamentally.
- Cosmic rays: particles from outer space | CERN (home.cern)
- Microsoft Word – IV-sem-PHSA-CC9 -GAMMA EMISSION.docx (dacollege.org)
The third reference explains the physics behind it in depth from a pdf, the first reference is a lecture.
Writer: Ali Fathi Al-Bati
Editors: Rana Alqahtani/ Lamar Albukhari